Seed are normally transported in plastic bags. If the transportation is longer than 6 hours, small bags of ice should be added into the boxes to reduce the water temperature and maintain it at oC. The ideal time for transportation is in the early morning or evening to avoid excessively high temperatures during the day, unless a covered vehicle is used.
To eliminate stress, the seed should be maintained in water of constant salinity for at least 1-week prior to transfer. The adjustment of salinity by about 3 ppt daily is advisable. Acclimation of seed to the water pH and temperature of the pond must be rendered upon arrival. Two common techniques are used for gradual acclimation of seed to the water conditions in the pond.
The first method is accomplished by placing the seed and water from the transported bag into a tank at the side of a pond containing an equal volume of well-aerated pond water. The seed will be kept for 0. The second method, the most favorable one, is to float the plastic bag in the pond until it has reached equilibrium. The bags are opened one by one and pond water is added gradually to an equal volume. After a further 30 min of acclimatization, the seed are released directly into the pond by distributing them throughout the area of the pond or into a nursing system.
The actual numbers of seed at stocking can be estimated by counting the PL individually in bags with a spoon or small net to attain the average number in each bag and multiplied by the total number of bags.
Marine shrimp farming
The nursing system will help in concentrating the seed in a limited area until they reach PL and in more accurate monitoring for survival and feeding of the PL. As a result, a farmer prefers to nurse the seed in an impoundment installed inside the pond, rather than in a separate pond. The same acclimation process should be performed during seed and juvenile stocking.
In this method, seed should appear in the lift net at days after stocking and the number of shrimp in the net should be counted at 2 hours after feeding once daily.
The survival number of shrimp can then be estimated. Seed can be added up to 30 days post-stocking without causing a variation in size at harvest. Some farmers release seed directly into the pond. In this direct stocking method, the survival number of seed during the first 2 weeks post stocking may not be accurately estimated, since the shrimp will not approach the feeding trays during this period.
The use of feeds will improve shrimp production and increase profits. The availability of nutrients from feeds depends on the type and quality of the raw material used, the formulation, the feed processing, feed storage conditions and the feeding management. Therefore, feed and feeding practices for semi-intensive or intensive shrimp farming require a basic understanding of nutrition and feed requirements.
Shrimp diets may be supplementary or complete. In a extensive system the shrimps need a complete diet. Although natural food items have good conversion values but they are difficult to procure in large quantities and maintain a continuous supply. The feeding could be done by using automatic feed dispensers, or by broadcasting all over the pond.
If feeding trays are employed in selected pockets in the pond wastage in feed can be reduced. Shrimp requires approximately 40 essential nutrients. These nutrients are provided in various amounts by natural food and supplemental feeds. Although the nutrition principles are similar for all animals, the quality and quantity of nutrient requirements vary from species to species.
Shrimp Farming Guide
The recommended levels of nutrients and dietary components for black tiger shrimp are listed in table below. Recommended nutrient levels for shrimp feed on percentage fed basis. Shrimp consume dietary protein to obtain a continuous supply of amino acids for normal growth.
About 20 major amino acids make up most of the proteins and 10 are essential including methionine, arginine, threonine, tryptophan, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, valine and phenylalanine. Thus, essential amino acids must be provided in adequate quantities and qualities well-balanced in the diet. It is believed that post-larval shrimp require a higher protein level than larger shrimp. The lipid requirement of shrimp depends on their essential fatty acids and phospholipid content.
There are four fatty acids, which are considered essential for shrimp, namely linoleic n6 , linolenic n3 , eicosapentaenoic n3 and decosahexaenoic n3. In general, plant oils are high in The requirement for cholesterol ranges from 0. In addition, the recommended lipid level ranges from 6. The utilization and metabolism of carbohydrates by shrimp are limited.
Their type and level in the diet have been shown to affect shrimp growth. Starch as the carbohydrate source is utilized better than dextrin or glucose for Penaeus monodon.
Little is known about vitamin requirements in shrimp. In intensive farming, vitamins must be supplied in the diet for normal growth. Commercial shrimp feeds are usually over-fortified with vitamins to overcome shortfalls due to processing loss and feed storage. The minimum requirement for vitamin C, which is easily lost, is about ppm for Penaeus monodon. Shrimp can absorb or excrete minerals directly from the aquatic environment via gills and body surfaces.
The dietary requirement for minerals is largely dependent on the mineral concentration of the environment in which the shrimp are being cultured.
Among the other minerals, phosphorus is the most important, and is recommended at 0. Calcium is not considered to be a dietary essential.
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However, its level in feed needs to be monitored because it is important to maintain calcium to phosphorus ratio of to Calcium should not exceed 2. The use of good quality feed will improve shrimp production and profits, and minimize the environmental pollution from shrimp farming. The practical indicators of good quality feed are:. An ideal FCR always results in model growth rate, healthy shrimp and clean pond bottom conditions.
Only the superior quality of feed can achieve an FCR of 1.
Starting a Shrimp Farming Business
According to recent data, an FCR as low as 1. Therefore, besides the feeding management, the FCR is also closely related to the quality of feed. Since shrimp are a slow feeder animal, the water stability of suitable feed should be over 2 hours for Penaeus monodon. Feed quality will rapidly deteriorate if feed is not packed well and properly stored. Feed should be stored in a dry, cool and well-ventilated place to maintain consistent moisture and temperature. Feed should not be stored in direct sunlight and should not be kept longer than 3 months from the time of processing.
The spoiled or old feed should not be used. A high FCR or high amount of feed required to produce unit weight gain indicates overfeeding, and consequently, a poor FCR is usually associated with poor growth rate, low weight gain, stressed shrimp, mediocre water quality and adverse pond bottom conditions. Therefore, the proper amount of feed is the most critical factor of feeding management. The guidelines for feeding adjustment to be made according to the mean body weight of the shrimp are shown in table below.
Since many factors are involved in shrimp feed consumption, careful and frequent observation of shrimp is the most reliable approach for determining the optimal feeding amount. There are many major key factors for successful intensive shrimp culture.
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Use of good quality feed with better feeding management by low feed conversion ratios and improved farm management are the important goals to farmers, not only for gaining greater profit, but also for minimizing the pollution of shrimp farming area. Water conditions in the rearing pond deteriorate through the production cycle due to uneaten food, animal's excretion, etc.
Generally, shrimp farmers use dissolved oxygen DO , pH, ammonia, water color and water odor as indicators to judge the water quality of the pond. These parameters are observed regularly by using either scientific equipment or the farmer's experience in order to control them within the optimum range. The amount of oxygen dissolved in the pond water is vital to the shrimp's health. The level of dissolved oxygen can be controlled in 3 ways.
Firstly, by increasing the water surface area by means of placing paddle wheels in the right position. This is not only causes proper water circulation, but also adds oxygen to the pond water.
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