Biology and Breeding of Crucifers

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The information contained in this text will assist researchers in developing ways to increase genetic variability among brassicas, improve crop productivity and quality, and adopt synergistic approaches to ensure food and nutritional security worldwide. Toon meer Toon minder. Recensie s The book contains 18 review chapters by different authors of various aspects of the Cruciferae.

The general theme is the genetic exploitation of wild species, with some emphasis on Asian oil-seed species. Several chapters are authoritative and comprehensive, covering systematics and evolution, manipulation of the sexual process, interspecific hybridization, cytogenetics and gene introgression. Some topics e. The figures within each chapter are monochrome and some are of poor quality, but are replicated in high quality colour in a separate section in the centre of the book.

These reviews are likely to make the book valuable to researchers and plant breeders for at least a decade. Reviews Schrijf een review. Bindwijze: Hardcover. Verkoop door partner van bol. In winkelwagen Op verlanglijstje. Andere verkopers 1. Bekijk en vergelijk alle verkopers.

Gratis verzending 30 dagen bedenktijd en gratis retourneren. Anderen bekeken ook. Nina L. Etkin Eating on the Wild Side 47, The chlorotic lesions were evidence of a photosynthesis decline. After the initial plant damage, the 0. Under the 0. After exposure to 0. The 0. In contrast, the pistil morphology appeared to be more resistant to tribenuron-methyl damage because normal pistils were always present Figs.

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Damage on plants due to tribenuron-methyl exposure. Note the lack of anthers and petals. Higher doses had obvious toxicity to the size of the flower bud. Male sterile flowers in Brassica species induced by 0. The control is on the left side, and the tribenuron-methyl treatment is on the right side in each part. Male sterile flowers in the other crucifer species induced by 0.

The treatment of 0. Plant height was not significantly reduced in B. We assumed that the dose-species interaction was mainly caused by plant biomass differences because a larger and robust plant could be more tolerant to a higher pesticide dosage than a smaller one. However, the differences of the ALS gene and the pathway of metabolic detoxification could also be considered. Plant height decreased by 0. The effects of tribenuron-methyl were assessed on the flowering phenology pattern by examining DOF delay of flowering in a certain cultivar in comparison to the day when the first flower opened in any one of the nine plots growing the cultivar and DUR Fig.

The treatment significantly influenced both measurements, though not for all species or cultivars. To assess male sterility, the pollen viabilities of all treatments were estimated by using acetocarmine staining. Normal pollen grains stained deeply, with spherical shape and exine on the surface, while abortive pollen grains showed irregular shape and were unable to be stained due to a loss of cytoplasm and nuclear Fig.

The proportion of stained pollen grains was significantly reduced by the tribenuron-methyl treatment. The average PV of the 0. The effect of the 0. Pollen grains in M.

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The pollen grains of the control are stained deeply; meanwhile, the aborted pollen grains cannot be stained, and the content disappeared. Effects of 0.

Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research

In addition to pollen viability, the ability of the plants to self-pollinate was examined in the 23 accessions. The proportion of successfully set seeds was significantly reduced by the tribenuron-methyl treatment. Except for M.

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However, the decrease in selfing seed-set by self-incompatibility was also considered in species such as B. Notwithstanding, the combined use of the gametocide and self-incompatibility in hybrid seed production fields may obtain purer hybrid seeds than the use of a single method. Note: The lower rate of selfing seed-set in B.

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Seed-set in plants under manual pollination was slightly reduced under the 0. The reduction was significant under the 0. However, approximately half of the seeds of the 0. In summary, the phytotoxic effects were not serious in some species with strong plant vigour and larger biomass. Relatively, high MS and low phytotoxicity were observed in O.

Manual pollination could represent an initial success for hybrid seed production because we used other cultivars as the pollen donor in most tested species, except for C. The results of our present study showed that the exposure of cruciferous plants to trace amounts of tribenuron-methyl caused developmental defects in the formation of stamens and other floral organs. Pollen viability was reduced to a very low level, but satisfactory female fertility was confirmed by manual cross-pollination.

The results suggested that tribenuron-methyl could induce cruciferous plants to be highly sterile males while having comparatively low damage to female fitness. Therefore, the prospect of the application of tribenuron-methyl and other similar gametocides on cruciferous plant breeding seems to be promising. First, CIMS is a helpful complementary method for the utilization of heterosis, and the values are similar to those of the self-incompatibilities and environment-sensitive male sterilities. Second, in some ornamental plants and medicinal plants, where a heritable MS system is unavailable or where the introduction of foreign GMS or CMS will alter key biological attributes, CIMS could play an important role in hybrid breeding.

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Third, CIMS may make it easier to utilize hybrid vigour in minor specialty crops, which only needs a small scale for hybrid seed production with a carefully calibrated foliar application. Fourth, for forage grasses and green manure plants, which does not require high seed purity, a CIMS application for hybrid seed production would have little risk even if the hybridity of the obtained seed were not high.

Fifth, CIMS could replace manual emasculation in conventional sexual hybridization and save time and labour cost for breeders or geneticists, who often make thousands of inter-variety crosses during the flowering stage to create recombined offspring or to evaluate hybrid performance. Lastly, distant hybridization could be promoted with the use of CIMS; for example, we successfully obtained dozens of hybrid seeds from a B.

Brassicaceae vegetables are highly regarded for their nutritional value. They provide high amounts of vitamin C and soluble fibre and contain nutrients with anticarcinogenic properties. For example, rocket salad or arugula are valuable nutrient resources; their spicy taste is widely used as a type of flavour in cooking, and they also have a long history of clinical use, as well as other types of use for various purposes [ 21 ]. Other plants, such as B.

Self-incompatibility in Brassicaceae crops: lessons for interspecific incompatibility

Unfortunately, hybrid breeding for these crops is hampered by the unavailability of an MS system. A high level of MS induced by tribenuron-methyl brings an opportunity for the utilization of heterosis of these minor crops that belong to Brassicaceae including S. In addition, exposure to trace concentrations of imazethapyr, an ALS-inhibitor, had unstable gametocidal effects on Brassica plants [ 13 ] and affected floral organ development and reproduction in A.

Thus, an application of ALS-inhibiting gametocides on model plant A.

Biology and Breeding of Crucifers

The results of the present study, combined with previous studies [ 12 , 13 , 14 , 23 , 24 ], suggest the possible use of other sulfonylurea chemicals as gametocides for cruciferous plants. The alternate use of other gametocides can resolve the concerns of insensitivity to tribenuron-methyl in some special genotypes. For example, amidosulfuron [ 12 ] had gametocidal effects similar to tribenuron-methyl in B. Before the utilization of gametocide tribenuron-methyl [ 11 ], other gametocides were seldom applied in crucifer plants due to low efficiency or residual toxicity [ 9 , 10 ].

Currently, a few experiments have been conducted to adjust the timing and dosage of gametocide applications [ 18 , 19 ]. Li et al. In another study on B.

Biology and Breeding of Crucifers

Because gametocides including tribenuron-methyl showed no effects to nearly mature pollen, the first spray should be applied before microspore mitosis completion in the anther of the largest flower buds. However, for cruciferous such as cabbage, mustard, stock, and radish, which have large biomass, a long duration of blooming, and thick leaves covered by cuticle or trichomes that could impede the adhesion and uptake of a gametocide, a higher dose of tribenuron-methyl could be sprayed, but the risk of phytotoxic effects would rise. Alternatively, repeated applications at ten-day intervals could enhance and prolong the gametocidal effect.

Another technical problem is that the herbicide needs to be applied very evenly. Tribenuron-methyl and other sulfonylurea herbicides are rapidly absorbed by the foliage and roots and translocated throughout the plant.

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Thus, the proper dose to every treated plants needs to be carefully calibrated and distributed by a precise spray.

Biology and Breeding of Crucifers Biology and Breeding of Crucifers
Biology and Breeding of Crucifers Biology and Breeding of Crucifers
Biology and Breeding of Crucifers Biology and Breeding of Crucifers
Biology and Breeding of Crucifers Biology and Breeding of Crucifers
Biology and Breeding of Crucifers Biology and Breeding of Crucifers
Biology and Breeding of Crucifers Biology and Breeding of Crucifers
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